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Journal Club

 

Links to translations of official recommendations related to disinfection measures by German authorities or professional societies:

 

Guidelines issued by the Robert Koch Institute (KRINKO Commission):

Committee for Biological Agents (ABAS):

Edition: March 2014 GMBl. GMBl No. 10/11 of 27.03.2014, p. 206. Last amended: GMBl 2015 No. 29 of 21.07.2015, p. 577

 

Journal Club: Selected international research articles on disinfection (PubMed Search), March 2016 

Costa D, Girardot M, Bertaux J, Verdon J, Imbert C. Efficacy of dental unit waterlines disinfectants on a polymicrobial biofilm. Water Res. 2016;91:38-44.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773487

Girard M, Mattison K, Fliss I, Jean J. Efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants at inactivating murine norovirus on ready-to-eat foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;219:7-11.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686597

Gomes IB, Malheiro J, Mergulhao F, Maillard JY, Simoes M. Comparison of the efficacy of natural-based and synthetic biocides to disinfect silicone and stainless steel surfaces. Pathog Dis. 2016.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926153

Hsu MS, Wu MY, Huang YT, Liao CH. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide disinfection to non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a hospital water system. J Hosp Infect. 2016.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944904

Hubble WL, Turner JA, Heuertz R. Effectiveness of Current Practices for Disinfecting Medical Equipment in a Radiology Department. Radiol Technol. 2016;87(3):250-60.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721837

Nandy P, Lucas AD, Gonzalez EA, Hitchins VM. Efficacy of commercially available wipes for disinfection of pulse oximeter sensors. Am J Infect Control. 2016;44(3):304-10.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589998

Quinn, Margaret M.Braun, Barbara et al. Cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces in health care: Toward an integrated framework for infection and occupational illness prevention. American Journal of Infection Control.  2015. 43: (5) :424 – 434.
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553%2815%2900075-9/abstract

Zonta W, Mauroy A, Farnir F, Thiry E. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus. Food Environ Virol. 2016;8(1):1-12
http://www.pubfacts.com/detail/26445948/Comparative-Virucidal-Efficacy-of-Seven-Disinfectants-Against-Murine-Norovirus-and-Feline-Caliciviru

Khan S, Beattie TK, Knapp CW. Relationship between antibiotic- and disinfectant-resistance profiles in bacteria harvested from tap water. Chemosphere. 2016;152:132-41.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966812

Caselli E, D'Accolti M, Vandini A, Lanzoni L, Camerada MT, Coccagna M, et al. Impact of a Probiotic-Based Cleaning Intervention on the Microbiota Ecosystem of the Hospital Surfaces: Focus on the Resistome Remodulation. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148857.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886448

Shinoda N, Mitarai S, Suzuki E, Watanabe M. Disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Japan. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2016;5:3.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858829

Elkholy YS, Hegab AS, Ismail DK, Hassan RM. Evaluation of a novel commercial quaternary ammonium compound for eradication of Mycobacteria, HCV and HBV in Egypt. J Microbiol. 2016;54(1):39-43.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727900
Nunes-Costa D, Alarico S, Dalcolmo MP, Correia-Neves M, Empadinhas N. The looming tide of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Portugal and Brazil. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016;96:107-19.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560840

Zhang A, He X, Meng Y, Guo L, Long M, Yu H, et al. Antibiotic and Disinfectant Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Retail Meats in Sichuan, China. Microb Drug Resist. 2016;22(1):80-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167743

Babaei MR, Sulon A, Awang Hamat R et al. Extremely high prevalence of antiseptic resistant Quaternary Ammonium Compound E gene among clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Malaysia. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2015 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-015-0071-7
http://ann-clinmicrob.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12941-015-0071-7
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363066/

Leggett MJ, Schwarz JS, Burke PA, McDonnell G, Denyer SP, Maillard J-Y. Mechanism of Sporicidal Activity for the Synergistic Combination of Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide. Schottel JL, ed. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2016;82(4):1035-1039. doi:10.1128/AEM.03010-15.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751845/

Leggett MJ, Schwarz JS, Burke PA, McDonnell G, Denyer SP, Maillard JY. Resistance to and killing by the sporicidal microbicide peracetic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70(3):773-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428922

Suche: Disinfection/Efficacy, Literaturhinweise + Abstract

Costa D, Girardot M, Bertaux J, Verdon J, Imbert C. Efficacy of dental unit waterlines disinfectants on a polymicrobial biofilm. Water Res. 2016;91:38-44.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773487

Abstract:
Due to their high surface-volume ratio, their laminar flow and frequent stagnation periods, dental unit waterlines (DUWL) foster the attachment of microorganisms and the development of biofilm, resulting in the continuous contamination of the outlet water from dental units; this contamination may be responsible for a potential risk of infection due to the exposure of patients and medical staff to droplet inhalation or splashed water. In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of three disinfectants recommended by dental unit manufacturers -Calbenium((c)), Oxygenal 6((c)) and Sterispray((c)) - was evaluated. A dynamic model simulating DUWL conditions was developed and polymicrobial biofilms containing bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), fungi (Candida albicans) and Free Living Amoeba (FLA: Vermamoeba vermiformis) were allowed to form. The ability of disinfectants to reduce biofilm formation or to eradicate an already formed biofilm was evaluated. Results showed the various effects of the tested disinfectants according to their composition, concentration and the targeted species. V. vermiformis was resistant to disinfectants, regardless of the tested concentrations and the concentrations recommended by manufacturers were not the most appropriate. Results also showed that Calbenium((c)) was the most effective disinfectant to reduce already formed biofilms; its maximum efficiency was observed from 0.5% on both P. aeruginosa and C. albicans compared to 2 and 3% respectively for Sterispray((c)). The maximum efficiency of Oxygenal((c)) was observed from 3% on P. aeruginosa but Oxygenal((c)) was unable to totally eliminate C. albicans in the tested conditions, contrary to other disinfectants. Calbenium((c)) was able to prevent biofilm formation efficiently even if it displayed no prophylactic activity against V. vermiformis. Overall, the FLA survival may contribute to maintaining other species. Finally the tested disinfectants were partially active against sessile microorganisms and more suitable concentrations could be used to increase their efficacy. Their use in a prophylactic rather than curative way should be recommended.

 

Girard M, Mattison K, Fliss I, Jean J. Efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants at inactivating murine norovirus on ready-to-eat foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;219:7-11.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686597

Abstract
Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness, and ready-to-eat foods are frequent vehicles of their transmission. Studies of the disinfection of fruits and vegetables are becoming numerous. It has been shown that strong oxidizing agents are more effective than other chemical disinfectants for inactivating enteric viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, chloride dioxide and peracetic acid) at inactivating noroviruses on fruits and vegetables, using a norovirus surrogate, namely murine norovirus 3, which replicates in cell culture. Based on plaque assay, solutions of peracetic acid (85ppm) and chlorine dioxide (20ppm) reduced the infectivity of the virus in suspension by at least 3 log10 units after 1min, while sodium hypochlorite at 50ppm produced a 2-log reduction. On the surface of blueberries, strawberries and lettuce, chlorine dioxide was less effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite, which reduced viral titers by approximately 4 logs. A surprising increase in the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite on surfaces fouled with artificial feces was noted.

 

Gomes IB, Malheiro J, Mergulhao F, Maillard JY, Simoes M. Comparison of the efficacy of natural-based and synthetic biocides to disinfect silicone and stainless steel surfaces. Pathog Dis. 2016.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926153

Abstract
New biocidal solutions are needed to combat effectively the evolution of microbes developing antibiotic resistance while having a low or no environmental toxicity impact. This work aims to assess the efficacy of commonly used biocides and natural-based compounds on the disinfection of silicone and stainless steel (SS) surfaces seeded with different Staphylococcus aureus strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for synthetic (benzalkonium chloride-BAC, glutaraldehyde-GTA, ortho-phthalaldehyde-OPA and peracetic acid-PAA) and natural-based (cuminaldehyde-CUM), eugenol-EUG and indole-3-carbinol-I3C) biocides by the microdilution method. The efficacy of selected biocides at MIC, 10xMIC and 5500 mg/L (representative in-use concentration) on the disinfection of sessile S. aureus on silicone and SS was assessed by viable counting. Silicone surfaces were harder to disinfect than SS. GTA, OPA and PAA yielded complete CFU reduction of sessile cells for all test concentrations as well as BAC at 10xMIC and 5500 mg/L. CUM was the least efficient compound. EUG was efficient for SS disinfection, regardless of strains and concentrations tested. I3C at 10xMIC and 5500 mg/L was able to cause total CFU reduction of silicone and SS deposited bacteria. Although not so efficient as synthetic compounds, the natural-based biocides are promising to be used in disinfectant formulations, particularly I3C and EUG.

 

Hsu MS, Wu MY, Huang YT, Liao CH. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide disinfection to non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a hospital water system. J Hosp Infect. 2016.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944904

Abstract
Background: Chlorinated tap water in hospitals often contains low levels of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Measures are needed to ensure a safe water supply in hospitals to prevent nosocomial infections from these waterborne pathogens. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ClO2 treatment of a hospital water system on the levels of NFGNB and NTM in the water. Methods: Our institution is a 1000-bed medical centre with two main buildings (B1 and B2). B1 has three intensive care units (ICUs) and transplant wards and polyethylene water pipes. B2 (control) has no ICUs and galvanized water pipes. A ClO2 generating unit was installed in the water system of B1 in April 2012 and water samples were collected in B1 and B2 before and eight times after installation. All samples were cultured for NFGNB and NTM. Findings: The ClO2 concentration was significantly lower in the hot water than in the cold water (P<0.001). After 40 weeks of ClO2 use, the overall NFGNB colonies decreased significantly (hot water: 160+/-143 vs 2+/-4cfu/mL, P<0.001; cold water: 108+/-138 vs 3+/-7cfu/mL, P<0.001). Highly prevalent nosocomial NFGNB, such as Pseudomonas spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp., were undetected three months after ClO2 disinfection; Sphingomonas spp. persisted but had lower colony counts. NTM was present in 25% (three out of 12) of sampling locations initially, but was not detected at two weeks after ClO2 disinfection. The ICUs had no overall change in the number of NFGNB nosocomial infections after the intervention. CONCLUSION: Addition of a ClO2 disinfection unit to our hospital water system reduced the numbers of NTM and NFGNB in the hot and cold water systems.

 

Hubble WL, Turner JA, Heuertz R. Effectiveness of Current Practices for Disinfecting Medical Equipment in a Radiology Department. Radiol Technol. 2016;87(3):250-60.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721837

Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of routine, daily disinfection practices on the control of microorganisms on nuclear medicine equipment in a radiology department. Methods: During phase 1, surface samples were collected from various sites in the nuclear medicine division of a radiology department at a single institution. These samples were transferred onto growth plates for evaluation and speciation by a clinical microbiologist. Collection sites that yielded potentially pathogenic bacteria or high numbers (> 100) of colonies of likely nonpathogenic bacteria were identified for resampling. During phase 2, secondary samples were taken at the resampling sites after disinfection. These secondary samples also were evaluated to determine the efficacy of the departmental disinfection practices on surface cleanliness. Results: Phase 1 sampling identified 10 sites that harbored either potentially pathogenic bacteria or high numbers of likely nonpathogenic bacteria. Evaluation of postdisinfection samples indicated elimination of potentially pathogenic bacteria and reduction of likely nonpathogenic colonies. Discussion: The variety of surfaces and equipment found in radiology departments can present unique challenges for effective disinfection. Porous materials and intricate imaging and peripheral devices require special consideration when designing and maintaining department cleaning policies. CONCLUSION: The disinfection practices in place at the institution were effective in reducing or eliminating bacteria; however, recolonization after cleaning was recognized as a possibility. Educating staff about the value of disinfecting contact surfaces between patients is necessary to achieve optimum sanitization in the radiology department.

 

Nandy P, Lucas AD, Gonzalez EA, Hitchins VM. Efficacy of commercially available wipes for disinfection of pulse oximeter sensors. Am J Infect Control. 2016;44(3):304-10.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589998

Abstract
Background: This study examined the effectiveness of commercially available disinfecting wipes and cosmetic wipes in disinfecting pulse oximeter sensors contaminated with pathogenic bacterial surrogates. Methods: Surrogates of potential biological warfare agents and bacterial pathogens associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) were spotted on test surfaces, with and without an artificial test soil (sebum), allowed to dry, and then cleaned with different commercially available cleaning and disinfecting wipes or sterile gauze soaked in water, bleach (diluted 1:10), or 70% isopropanol. The percentage of microbial survival and an analytical estimation of remaining test soil on devices were determined. Results: Wipes containing sodium hypochlorite as the active ingredient and gauze soaked in bleach (1:10) were the most effective in removing both vegetative bacteria and spores. In the presence of selective disinfectants, sebum had a protective effect on vegetative bacteria, but not on spores. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of sebum reduces the cleaning efficiency of some commercially available wipes for some select microbes. Various commercial wipes performed significantly better than the designated cleaning agent (70% isopropanol) in disinfecting the oximetry sensor. Cosmetic wipes were not more effective than the disinfecting wipes in removing sebum.

 

Zonta W, Mauroy A, Farnir F, Thiry E. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus. Food Environ Virol. 2016;8(1):1-12
http://www.pubfacts.com/detail/26445948/Comparative-Virucidal-Efficacy-of-Seven-Disinfectants-Against-Murine-Norovirus-and-Feline-Caliciviru

Abstract
Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs.

 

Quinn, Margaret M.Braun, Barbara et al.Cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces in health care: Toward an integrated framework for infection and occupational illness prevention. American Journal of Infection Control.  2015. 43: (5) :424 – 434.
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553%2815%2900075-9/abstract

Abstract
Background. The Cleaning and Disinfecting in Healthcare Working Group of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Occupational Research Agenda, is a collaboration of infection prevention and occupational health researchers and practitioners with the objective of providing a more integrated approach to effective environmental surface cleaning and disinfection (C&D) while protecting the respiratory health of health care personnel. Methods. The Working Group, comprised of >40 members from 4 countries, reviewed current knowledge and identified knowledge gaps and future needs for research and practice. Results. An integrated framework was developed to guide more comprehensive efforts to minimize harmful C&D exposures without reducing the effectiveness of infection prevention. Gaps in basic knowledge and practice that are barriers to an integrated approach were grouped in 2 broad areas related to the need for improved understanding of the (1) effectiveness of environmental surface C&D to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases and colonization in health care workers and patients and (2) adverse health impacts of C&D on health care workers and patients. Specific needs identified within each area relate to basic knowledge, improved selection and use of products and practices, effective hazard communication and training, and safer alternatives.  CONCLUSION. A more integrated approach can support multidisciplinary teams with the capacity to maximize effective and safe C&D in health care.

---------------------------------------------------------------
Suche: Disinfectant/Resistance

Khan S, Beattie TK, Knapp CW. Relationship between antibiotic- and disinfectant-resistance profiles in bacteria harvested from tap water. Chemosphere. 2016;152:132-41.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966812

Abstract
Chlorination is commonly used to control levels of bacteria in drinking water; however, viable bacteria may remain due to chlorine resistance. What is concerning is that surviving bacteria, due to co-selection factors, may also have increased resistance to common antibiotics. This would pose a public health risk as it could link resistant bacteria in the natural environment to human population. Here, we investigated the relationship between chlorine- and antibiotic-resistances by harvesting 148 surviving bacteria from chlorinated drinking-water systems and compared their susceptibilities against chlorine disinfectants and antibiotics. Twenty-two genera were isolated, including members of Paenibacillus, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Sphingomonas and Dermacoccus species. Weak (but significant) correlations were found between chlorine-tolerance and minimum inhibitory concentrations against the antibiotics tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin, but not against ciprofloxacin; this suggest that chlorine-tolerant bacteria are more likely to also be antibiotic resistant. Further, antibiotic-resistant bacteria survived longer than antibiotic-sensitive organisms when exposed to free chlorine in a contact-time assay; however, there were little differences in susceptibility when exposed to monochloramine. Irrespective of antibiotic-resistance, spore-forming bacteria had higher tolerance against disinfection compounds. The presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria surviving in drinking-water systems may carry additional risk of antibiotic resistance.

 

Caselli E, D'Accolti M, Vandini A, Lanzoni L, Camerada MT, Coccagna M, et al. Impact of a Probiotic-Based Cleaning Intervention on the Microbiota Ecosystem of the Hospital Surfaces: Focus on the Resistome Remodulation. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148857.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886448

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Contamination of hospital surfaces by clinically-relevant pathogens represents a major concern in healthcare facilities, due to its impact on transmission of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and to the growing drug resistance of HAI-associated pathogens. Routinely used chemical disinfectants show limitations in controlling pathogen contamination, due to their inefficacy in preventing recontamination and selection of resistant strains. Recently we observed that an innovative approach, based on a cleanser added with spores of non-pathogenic probiotic Bacilli, was effective in stably counteracting the growth of several pathogens contaminating hospital surfaces. METHODS: Here, we wanted to study the impact of the Bacillus-based cleanser on the drug-resistance features of the healthcare pathogens population. In parallel, the ability of cleanser-derived Bacilli to infect hospitalized patients was also investigated. RESULTS: Collected data showed that Bacilli spores can germinate on dry inanimate surfaces, generating the bacterial vegetative forms which counteract the growth of pathogens and effectively substitute for them on treated surfaces. Strikingly, this procedure did not select resistant species, but conversely induced an evident decrease of antibiotic resistance genes in the contaminating microbial population. Also importantly, all the six HAI-positive patients hosted in the treated areas resulted negative for probiotic Bacilli, thus adding evidences to their safety-to-use. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that this probiotic-based procedure is active not only in controlling surface microbial contamination but also in lowering drug-resistant species, suggesting that it may have relevant clinical and therapeutical implications for the management of HAIs.

 

Shinoda N, Mitarai S, Suzuki E, Watanabe M. Disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Japan. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2016;5:3.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858829

BACKGROUND: Multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been an important problem in public health around the world. However, limited information about disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant strain of M. tuberculosis was available. FINDINGS: We studied susceptibility of several Japanese isolates of multi-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis against disinfectants, which are commonly used in clinical and research laboratories. We selected a laboratory reference strain (H37Rv) and eight Japanese isolates, containing five drug-susceptible strains and three multi-drug-resistant strains, and determined profiles of susceptibility against eight disinfectants. The M. tuberculosis strains were distinguished into two groups by the susceptibility profile. There was no relationship between multi-drug-resistance and disinfectant-susceptibility in the M. tuberculosis strains. Cresol soap and oxydol were effective against all strains we tested, regardless of drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Disinfectant-resistance is independent from multi-drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis. Cresol soap and oxydol were effective against all strains we tested, regardless of drug resistance.

 

Elkholy YS, Hegab AS, Ismail DK, Hassan RM. Evaluation of a novel commercial quaternary ammonium compound for eradication of Mycobacteria, HCV and HBV in Egypt. J Microbiol. 2016;54(1):39-43.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727900

Abstract
Endoscopes are a common source of outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections. It is therefore important to identify high-level disinfectants capable of eliminating or killing all vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses. Aldehydebased disinfectants are most commonly used in clinical practice but resistance has recently been detected and side effects associated with these disinfectants are well documented. In this study, we evaluated Virusolve+(R) EDS, a novel quaternary ammonium compound formulation supplied by Amity international, against Mycobacterium bovis (ATCC-27289), hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive serum and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive serum. We also compared its efficacy against Cidex(R) (glutaraldehyde 2%), an aldehyde-based disinfectant. M. bovis showed no growth after 10 weeks with either Virusolve+(R) or Cidex(R). Virusolve+(R) achieved a 10(4)- fold reduction in the initial 10(6) HCV load under clean conditions (without red blood cells) for 20 min, whereas Cidex(R) achieved this reduction under clean and dirty conditions (without and with red blood cells, respectively) after both 10 and 20 min. Both Virusolve+(R) and Cidex(R) were able to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity under clean conditions after 10 and 20 min, whereas under dirty conditions they were only able to eradicate virus infectivity after 20 min. Virusolve+(R) EDS when compared with Cidex(R) showed equal mycobactericidal activity completely eradicating M. bovis. However, both showed comparable virucidal activity against HBV, which was more effective under clean conditions, emphasizing the importance of the cleaning step in endoscope reprocessing. Cidex(R) was more effective at eradicating HCV under dirty conditions after a short contact time.

 

Price E, Weaver G, Hoffman P, Jones M, Gilks J, O'Brien V, et al. Decontamination of breast pump milk collection kits and related items at home and in hospital: guidance from a Joint Working Group of the Healthcare Infection Society and Infection Prevention Society. J Hosp Infect. 2016;92(3):213-21.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679726

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: A variety of methods are in use for decontaminating breast pump milk collection kits and related items associated with infant feeding. This paper aims to provide best practice guidance for decontamination of this equipment at home and in hospital. It has been compiled by a Joint Working Group of the Healthcare Infection Society and the Infection Prevention Society. METHODS: The guidance has been informed by a search of the literature in Medline, the British Nursing Index, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Midwifery and Infant Care, and the results of two surveys of UK neonatal units in 2002/3 and 2006, and of members of the Infection Prevention Society in 2014. Since limited good quality evidence was available from these sources, much of the guidance represents good practice based on the consensus view of the Working Group. KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: CONCLUSION: This guidance provides practical recommendations to support the safe decontamination of breast pump milk collection kits for healthcare professionals to use and communicate to other groups such as parents and carers.

 

Nunes-Costa D, Alarico S, Dalcolmo MP, Correia-Neves M, Empadinhas N. The looming tide of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Portugal and Brazil. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016;96:107-19.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560840

Abstract
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely disseminated in the environment and an emerging cause of infectious diseases worldwide. Their remarkable natural resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics and an ability to survive under low-nutrient conditions allows NTM to colonize and persist in man-made environments such as household and hospital water distribution systems. This overlap between human and NTM environments afforded new opportunities for human exposure, and for expression of their often neglected and underestimated pathogenic potential. Some risk factors predisposing to NTM disease have been identified and are mainly associated with immune fragilities of the human host. However, infections in apparently immunocompetent persons are also increasingly reported. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to this emerging health problem in Portugal and Brazil and to emphasize the urgent need for increased surveillance and more comprehensive epidemiological data in both countries, where such information is scarce and seriously thwarts the adoption of proper preventive strategies and therapeutic options.

 

Zhang A, He X, Meng Y, Guo L, Long M, Yu H, et al. Antibiotic and Disinfectant Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Retail Meats in Sichuan, China. Microb Drug Resist. 2016;22(1):80-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167743

Abstract
To demonstrate the resistance of antibiotics and disinfectants to Escherichia coli isolates, 255 E. coli strains were isolated from 328 retail meat samples in this study. Susceptibility testing results showed that 85.5% isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic drug. The E. coli isolates showed the highest resistance to sulfamethoxazole (61.6%), followed by tetracycline (61.2%), ampicillin (48.2%), cefalotin (29.8%), and kanamycin (22.4%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, N,N-didecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and cetylpyridinium chloride for E. coli were 16-1,024, 4-1,024, 16-512, and 8-512 mg/L, respectively. The emrE, ydgE/ydgF, mdfA, and sugE(c) genes were commonly present (53.7-83.1%), but the qac and sugE(p) genes were less prevalent (0.0-14.9%). The qac genes were highly associated with antimicrobial resistance. Conjugative transfer experiment indicated that the disinfectant resistance genes, qacF, sugE(p), and qacEΔ1, were located on conjugative plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the antimicrobial-resistant isolates were associated with the sampling supermarkets or groceries. This study indicated that using quaternary ammonium compounds to decontaminate food processing environments may be ineffective and even provide a selective pressure for strains with acquired resistance to other antimicrobials.

 

Sonstiges:

Babaei MR, Sulon A, Awang Hamat R et al. Extremely high prevalence of antiseptic resistant Quaternary Ammonium Compound E gene among clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Malaysia. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2015 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-015-0071-7

http://ann-clinmicrob.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12941-015-0071-7
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363066/

Abstract
Background. Antiseptics are commonly used for the management of MDR (multiple drug resistance) pathogens in hospitals. They play crucial roles in the infection control practices. Antiseptics are often used for skin antisepsis, gauze dressing, preparation of anatomical sites for surgical procedure, hand sterilization before in contact with an infected person, before an invasive procedure and as surgical scrub. Methods. We screened 122 multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolated from admitted patients in one of the tertiary care hospital in Malaysia for the presence of antiseptic resistant genes qacA and qacE (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) and susceptibility towards chlorhexidine (CLX), benzalkonium (BZK) and benzethonium (BZT). Results. Eighty-nine (73%) isolates harboured qacE gene, while none were positive for qacA. The MIC ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 for CLX, 0.02 to 0.2 for BZK and 0.04 to 0.2 μg/mL for BZT. The highest number of qacE positive isolates were obtained from surgery (n = 24; 27%; p < 0.05), followed by medical ward (n = 23; 25.8%) and ICU (n = 21; 23.6%). Majority of the isolates from wound swabs (n = 33; 37%), T/aspirate (n = 16; 18%) and tissue (n = 10; 11.2%) harboured the qacE genes. Conclusion. The present investigation showed high prevalence of qacE gene among the studied isolates. Antiseptics are important components of infection control, continuous monitoring of antiseptics use in the hospital is cautioned.

 

Leggett MJ, Schwarz JS, Burke PA, McDonnell G, Denyer SP, Maillard J-Y. Mechanism of Sporicidal Activity for the Synergistic Combination of Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide. Schottel JL, ed. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2016;82(4):1035-1039. doi:10.1128/AEM.03010-15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751845/

Abstract

There is still great interest in controlling bacterial endospores. The use of chemical disinfectants and, notably, oxidizing agents to sterilize medical devices is increasing. With this in mind, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peracetic acid (PAA) have been used in combination, but until now there has been no explanation for the observed increase in sporicidal activity. This study provides information on the mechanism of synergistic interaction of PAA and H2O2 against bacterial spores. We performed investigations of the efficacies of different combinations, including pretreatments with the two oxidizers, against wild-type spores and a range of spore mutants deficient in the spore coat or small acid-soluble spore proteins. The concentrations of the two biocides were also measured in the reaction vessels, enabling the assessment of any shift from H2O2 to PAA formation. This study confirmed the synergistic activity of the combination of H2O2 and PAA. However, we observed that the sporicidal activity of the combination is largely due to PAA and not H2O2. Furthermore, we observed that the synergistic combination was based on H2O2 compromising the spore coat, which was the main spore resistance factor, likely allowing better penetration of PAA and resulting in the increased sporicidal activity.

 

Leggett MJ, Schwarz JS, Burke PA, McDonnell G, Denyer SP, Maillard JY. Resistance to and killing by the sporicidal microbicide peracetic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70(3):773-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428922

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the mechanisms of spore resistance to and killing by the oxidizing microbicide peracetic acid (PAA). METHODS: Mutants of Bacillus subtilis lacking specific spore structures were used to identify resistance properties in spores and to understand the mechanism of action of PAA. We also assessed the effect of PAA treatment on a number of spore properties including heat tolerance, membrane integrity and germination. RESULTS: The spore coat is essential for spore PAA resistance as spores with defective coats were greatly sensitized to PAA treatment. Small acid-soluble spore proteins apparently provide no protection against PAA. Defects in spore germination, specifically in germination via the GerB and GerK but not the GerA germination receptors, as well as leakage of internal components suggest that PAA is active at the spore inner membrane. It is therefore likely that the inner membrane is the major site of PAA's sporicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: PAA treatment targets the spore membrane, with some of its activity directed specifically against the GerB and GerK germination receptors.

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Januar 2015 (chronologisch geordnet)

 

Alfa MJ, Lo E, Olson N, MacRae M, Buelow-Smith L. Use of a daily disinfectant cleaner instead of a daily cleaner reduced hospital-acquired infection rates. Am J Infect Control. 2015;43(2):141-146. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2014.10.016.
Conclusion
Our study data showed that daily use of the DCW applied to patient care high-touch environmental surfaces with a minimum of 80% cleaning compliance was superior to a cleaner alone because it resulted in significantly reduced rates of HAIs caused by C difficile, MRSA, and VRE.

 

Fraise A et al. Development of a sporicidal test method for Clostridium difficile.J Hospital Infection. 2015.89(1):2–15.
Conclusion
The method described by the Working Party produces a clean suspension with a high titre of spores. It is recommended that, for a disinfectant used in the environment, the product should demonstrate a 5log10 reduction in 5 min under clean or dirty conditions to fulfil the requirements of the test.
http://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701%2814%2900312-0/abstract

 

Cowperthwaite L, Holm RL. Guideline implementation: preoperative patient skin antisepsis. AORN J. 2015;101(1):71-80. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2014.11.009.
The updated AORN "Guideline for preoperative skin antisepsis" addresses the topics of preoperative patient bathing and hair removal, selection and application of skin antiseptics, and safe handling, storage, and disposal of skin antiseptics
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Cowperthwaite%20L%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=25537328
Also see:
Dumville JC et al. Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23543526

 

Conlan S, Thomas PJ, Deming C et al. Single-molecule sequencing to track plasmid diversity of hospital-associated carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6: 254ra126.
Abstract
... Our data, including full plasmid identification, challenge assumptions about horizontal gene transfer events within patients and identify possible connections between patients and the hospital environment. In addition, we identified a new carbapenemase-encoding plasmid of potentially high clinical impact carried by K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. cloacae, and Pantoea species, in unrelated patients and in the hospital environment.
http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/6/254/254ra126.short
http://www.micro-blog.info/2015/01/cre-trafficking-plasmids-through-hospital-surfaces/

CRE “trafficking” plasmids through hospital surfaces

 

Stowell J et al. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2014. 80:(2)455-461.
Conclusions
… Our data support the use of alcohol-based sanitizer or almost any hand-cleansing method that involves washing with water as a way to significantly reduce levels of viable CMV on hands and, presumably, reduce transmission risk. This information, in conjunction with other important research, may help to form the basis for effective health communications to inform women of reproductive age on reducing their risk for congenital CMV.
http://aem.asm.org/content/80/2/455.full

 

Gardner P et al. Wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities: “That's wheelie gross!” American Journal of Infection Control. 2014. 42(11): 1173 - 1177
Conclusion
Our results suggest that wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is not optimally performed at many Canadian hospitals and LTCFs. Specific guidance on wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is necessary.
Most facilities lack clear policies and procedures for cleaning and disinfection of wheelchairs.
Key concerns include tracking dirty and clean wheelchairs and dealing with cushions and armrests.
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553%2814%2901079-7/abstract

 

Lutz JK et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in public transportation vehicles (buses): Another piece to the epidemiologic puzzle. American Journal of Infection Control. 2014. (42)12:1285–1290.
Conclusion
MRSA was frequently isolated from commonly touched surfaces in buses serving both hospital and community routes. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis demonstrated that buses may be effective mixing vessels for MRSA strains of both community and health care–associated origin.
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553%2814%2901125-0/abstract

 

Reichel M, Schlicht A, Ostermeyer C, Kampf G. Efficacy of surface disinfectant cleaners against emerging highly resistant gram-negative bacteria. BMC Infect Dis. 2014. 14:292. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-292.
Conclusion
Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) were generally effective against gram-negative bacteria with and without multidrug resistance. SDCs are therefore suitable for surface disinfection in the immediate proximity of patients. Single bacterial isolates, however, might have reduced susceptibility to selected biocidal agents.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885029

 

Journal Club/PubMed:

(Disinfection + Hospital, Disinfection + Healthcare, Disinfection + Public, 2014), Artikelauswahl

Barker CS, Soro V, Dymock D, Sandy JR, Ireland, AJ. Microbial contamination of laboratory constructed removable orthodontic appliances. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 Feb 15.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532387

Biagi M, Giachetti D, Miraldi E, Figura N. New non-alcoholic formulation for hand disinfection. J Chemother. 2014 Apr;26(2):86-91. doi: 10.1179/1973947813Y.0000000111. Epub 2013 Dec 6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090970

 Boudjema, S, Dufour JC, Aladro AS, Desquerres I, Brouqui P. MediHandTrace (R): a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Jan;20(1):22-8. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12471.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24261513

Campos-Murguia A, Leon-Lara X, Munoz JM, Macias A, Alvarez J. Stethoscopes as potential intrahospital carriers of pathogenic microorganisms. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Jan;42(1):82-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.06.015. Epub 2013 Oct 29.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176606

Derde LP, Cooper BS, Goossens H, Malhotra-Kumar S, Willems RJ, Gniadkowski M et al. Interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;14(1):31-9. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70295-0. Epub 2013 Oct 23.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161233

Duszak RJ, Lanier B, Tubbs J, Ogilvie M, Thompson-Jaeger S. Bacterial contamination of radiologist workstations: results of a pilot study. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Feb;11(2):176-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2013.05.017. Epub 2013 Jun 28.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23816426

Fornwalt L, Riddell B. Implementation of innovative pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) environmental cleaning in an acute care hospital. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2014 Jan 22;7:25-8. doi: 10.2147/RMHP.S57082. eCollection 2014.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482577

Gonzalez, M, Jegu J, Kopferschmitt MC, Donnay C, Hedelin G et al. Asthma among workers in healthcare settings: role of disinfection with quaternary ammonium compounds. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Mar;44(3):393-406. doi: 10.1111/cea.12215.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24128009

Howell V, Thoppil A, Mariyaselvam M, Jones R, Young H, Sharma S, Blunt M. Young, P. Disinfecting the iPad: evaluating effective methods. J Hosp Infect. 2014 Mar 25. pii: S0195-6701(14)00081-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.01.012.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746231

Kampf G, Degenhardt S, Lackner S, Jesse K, von Baum H, Ostermeyer C. Poorly processed reusable surface disinfection tissue dispensers may be a source of infection. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 21;14:37. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-37.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24447780

Kao HF, Chen IC, Hsu C, Chang SY, Chien SF. Chlorhexidine for the prevention of bloodstream infection associated with totally implantable venous ports in patients with solid cancers. Support Care Cancer. 2014 May;22(5):1189-97. doi: 10.1007/s00520-013-2071-5. Epub 2014 Jan 3.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24384684

Linnes JC, Rudnick SN, Hunt GM, McDevitt JJ, Nardell EA. Eggcrate UV: a whole ceiling upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation system for air disinfection in occupied rooms. Indoor Air. 2014 Apr;24(2):116-24. doi: 10.1111/ina.12063. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889191

Meyers J, Ryndock E, Conway MG, Meyers C, Robsion R. Susceptibility of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 to clinical disinfectants. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Feb 4.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24500190

Mitchell BG, Digney, W Locket P, Dancer SJ. Controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a hospital and the role of hydrogen peroxide decontamination: an interrupted time series analysis. BMJ Open. 2014 Apr 19;4(4):e004522. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004522.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747791

Oliveira PS, Souza SG, Campos GB, da Silva DC, Sousa DS et al. Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar-Apr;18(2):129-36. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2013.06.008. Epub 2013 Nov 8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24216155

Oxford J, Berezin EN, Courvalin P, Dwyer DE, Exner M et al. The survival of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on 4 household surfaces. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Apr;42(4):423-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.10.016.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679569

Pang F, Jia XQ, Wang B, Li YH, Zhao QG. Control of an outbreak due to orthopedic infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing IMP-4 or IMP-8 carbapenemases. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2014 Mar 28. pii:S0369-8114(14)00035-2. doi: 10.1016/j.patbio.2014.01.004.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24685523

Peretz, A., et al. Do wheelchairs spread pathogenic bacteria within hospital walls? World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014. 30(2): p. 385-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23933808

Pichler, J., J. Soothill, and S. Hill. Reduction of blood stream infections in children following a change to chlorhexidine disinfection of parenteral nutrition catheter connectors. Clin Nutr, 2014. 33(1): p. 85-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23623781

Prag G, Falk-Brynhildsen K. Jacobsson S. et al. Decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine and prevalence ofdisinfectant resistance genes among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. APMIS, 2014.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24628476

Reem RE, et al. Screening and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Ophthalmology Clinic Surfaces: A Proposed Surveillance Tool. Am J Ophthalmol, 2014. 157(4): p. 781-787 e2.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412125

Rutala WA, et al., Effectiveness of improved hydrogen peroxide in decontaminating privacy curtains contaminated with multidrug-resistant pathogens. Am J Infect Control, 2014. 42(4): p. 426-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679570

Scholle D, Kipp F, Reich A, Freise H. Influence of protective measures after epidural catheter disconnection on catheter lumen colonization: an in vitro study. J Hosp Infect, 2014. 86(2): p. 133-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24418650

Sigusch BW et al. Colonization of Enterococcus faecalis in a new SiO/SiO-microtube in vitro model system as a function of tubule diameter. Dent Mater, 2014.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703548

Szczotka-Flynn L, et al. Corneal inflammatory events with daily silicone hydrogel lens wear. Optom Vis Sci, 2014. 91(1): p. 3-12.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24240354

Toepfer M, et al., [Insidious and widespread outbreak of Clostridium difficile. Changed cleaning procedures and frequent evaluations cut infection rates in half]. Lakartidningen, 2014. 111(1-2): p. 24-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24498716

You E, et al. Reduction in the incidence of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection through infection control interventions other than the restriction of antimicrobial use. Int J Infect Dis, 2014. 22: p. 9-10.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24583565

 

Hygiene und Medizin, Krankenhaushygiene u2date,
Krankenhaushygiene + Infektionsverhütung

Hughes K, Vossebein L. Einfluss von Desinfektionsmitteln auf die Barrierewirkung von OP-Mänteln und OP-Abdeckmaterialien. HygMed 2014; 39 [4]: 126–132
http://www.mhp-verlag.de/de/zeitschriften/hygiene_medizin/inhaltsverzeichnis/167/

Kovaleva J. Übertragung von Krankheitserregern bei Untersuchungen mit flexiblen Endoskopen – eine Übersicht. Krankenh.hyg. up2date 2014; 09(01): 8-9
https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0034-1367502

Pieper C, Schwebke I, Noeth K, Uhlenbrock K, Hübner NO, Solecki R. Antimikrobielle Produkte im Haushalt – eine Betrachtung zu Auswirkungen auf Gesundheit und Umwelt sowie zum Nutzen für den Anwender.HygMed 2014; 39 [3]: 68–76.
http://www.mhp-verlag.de/de/zeitschriften/hygiene_medizin/inhaltsverzeichnis/162/

Popp W, Parohl N, Ross B, Bernhard D, Marx P. Probleme bei der Etablierung eines Wasserstoffverneblers. HygMed 2014; 39 [3]: 77–80.
http://www.mhp-verlag.de/de/zeitschriften/hygiene_medizin/inhaltsverzeichnis/162/

V Rheinbaben F, Werner S. Desinfektionsmittel und deren Fehler. KrhHyg + Infverh 2014. Available online 24 April 2014.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0720337314000539

Schwebke I, Hübner NO. Wirkungsbereiche der Händedesinfektionsmittel – ein Beitrag zum Internationalen Tag der Händehygiene. Epid Bulletin 18/2014.

 

Selected articles from Eurosurveillance
http://www.eurosurveillance.org/Default.aspx

 

News

Eurosurveillance, Volume 19, Issue 18, 08 May 2014
Note from the editors: WHO declares international spread of wild poliovirus a public health emergency of international concern

Eurosurveillance, Volume 19, Issue 18, 08 May 2014
Review articles
Influenza at the animal–human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1)

Eurosurveillance, Volume 19, Issue 17, 01 May 2014
Research articles
Emergence of Escherichia coli encoding Shiga toxin 2f in human Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections in the Netherlands, January 2008 to December 2011

Eurosurveillance, Volume 19, Issue 15, 17 April 2014
Surveillance and outbreak reports
Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games

Eurosurveillance, Volume 19, Issue 12, 27 March 2014
Research articles
Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in the environment of northern Italy, May 2011 to June 2012

 

DIN-Normen

DIN-Taschenbuch 263 – Sterilisation von Medizinprodukten
Das DIN-Taschenbuch 263 informiert über den aktuellen Stand der Normung auf dem Gebiet der Entwicklung, Validierung und Lenkung der Anwendung von Sterilisationsprozessen.

DIN EN 374-1
Schutzhandschuhe gegen Chemikalien und Mikroorganismen - Teil 1: Terminologie und Leistungsanforderungen

DIN EN 374-2
Schutzhandschuhe gegen Chemikalien und Mikroorganismen - Teil 2: Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Penetration????Norm-Entwurf ?DIN EN 374-2 

DIN EN 374-3 Berichtigung 1
Schutzhandschuhe gegen Chemikalien und Mikroorganismen - Teil 3: Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Permeation von Chemikalien; Deutsche Fassung EN 374-3:2003, Berichtigung zu DIN EN 374-3:2003-12?

DIN EN 13624:
Chemische Desinfektionsmittel und Antiseptika - Quantitativer Suspensionsversuch zur Prüfung der fungiziden oder levuroziden Wirkung im humanmedizinischen Bereich - Prüfverfahren und Anforderungen (Phase 2, Stufe 1); Deutsche Fassung EN&